Abstract Question: What is the nature of the relationships between cover, diversity and abundance of biological soil crusts, cover and diversity of vascular plants, and annual rainfall, soil texture ...and forestry practices in Callitris glaucophylla woodlands? Location: Arid and semi-arid Callitris glaucophylla-dominated woodlands of eastern Australia. Methods: We documented soil crust-forming mosses, lichens and liverworts at 83 woodland sites along a gradient of declining rainfall. Linear and non-linear regression were used to examine relationships between soil crust species and attributes of vascular plant communities, and a similarity matrix (species abundance × sites) was subjected to Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and Analysis of Similarities (ANOSIM) to show the degree of association between groups of taxa, and soil texture, rainfall classes and forestry practices. Results: We collected 86 taxa. Mosses were dominated by the family Pottiaceae, and lichens were dominated by squamulose form...
Question: What is the nature of the relationships between cover, diversity and abundance of biological soil crusts, cover and diversity of vascular plants, and annual rainfall, soil texture and ...forestry practices in Callitris glaucophylla woodlands?Location: Arid and semi-arid Callitris glaucophylla-dominated woodlands of eastern Australia.Methods: We documented soil crust-forming mosses, lichens and liverworts at 83 woodland sites along a gradient of declining rainfall. Linear and non-linear regression were used to examine relationships between soil crust species and attributes of vascular plant communities, and a similarity matrix (species abundance × sites) was subjected to Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and Analysis of Similarities (ANOSIM) to show the degree of association between groups of taxa, and soil texture, rainfall classes and forestry practices.Results: We collected 86 taxa. Mosses were dominated by the family Pottiaceae, and lichens were dominated by squamulose forms. Average annual rainfall was highly correlated with soil crust community composition, and loamy soils supported a greater cover and diversity of taxa compared with sandy soils. Increases in tree cover were associated with significant, though weak, increases in abundance, but not diversity, of crusts. Crusts tended to be more diverse in areas that (1) had a sparse cover of ground-storey plants; (2) were relatively stable - as indicated by the proportion of perennial and/or native plants; (3) had more stable soil surfaces; and (4) were unlogged. Litter cover, overstorey thinning, and livestock grazing had no appreciable effect on crust diversity or cover.Conclusions: Callitris glaucophylla woodlands provide substantial habitat for soil crust organisms, and the dense tree cover and closed canopies of Callitris do not appear to have a major influence on the structure of biological crust communities. Unlike other woodland systems, relatively few patches would be required to reserve a high diversity of crust species.
Private Equity Cendrowski, Harry; Martin, James P; Petro, Louis W ...
An authoritative guide to understanding the world of private equity (PE) investing, governance structures, and operational assessments of PE portfolio companiesAn essential text for any ...business/finance professional's library, Private Equity: History, Governance, and Operations, Second Editionbegins by presenting historical information regarding the asset class. This information includes historical fundraising and investment levels, returns, correlation of returns to public market indices, and harvest trends. The text subsequently analyzes PE fund and portfolio company governance structures. It also presents ways to improve existing governance structures of these entities. A specific focus on portfolio company operations, including due diligence assessments, concludes the text.Seamlessly blends historical information with practical guidance based on risk management and fundamental accounting techniquesAssists the book's professional audience in maximizing returns of their PE investmentsHighly conducive to advanced, graduate-level classroom usePurchase of the text includes access to a website of teaching materials for instructional useLearn more about PE history, governance, and operations with the authoritative guidance found in Private Equity: History, Governance, and Operations, Second Edition.
Studies in Övdalian Morphology and Syntax Bentzen, Kristine; Rosenkvist, Henrik; Johannessen, Janne Bondi
Studies in Övdalian Morphology and Syntax,
2015, 2015-01-22, 20150122, 2015-01-01, Letnik:
eBook, Book Chapter, Book, Publication
Övdalian is spoken in central Sweden by about 2000 speakers. Traditionally categorized as a dialect of Swedish, it has not received much international attention. However, Övdalian is typologically ...closer to Faroese or Icelandic than it is to Swedish, and since it has been spoken in relative isolation for about 1000 years, a number of interesting linguistic archaisms have been preserved and innovations have developed. This volume provides seven papers about Övdalian morphology and syntax. The papers, all based on extensive fieldwork, cover topics such as verb movement, subject doubling, wh-words and case in Övdalian. Constituting the first comprehensive linguistic description of Övdalian in English, this volume is of interest for linguists in the fields of Scandinavian and Germanic linguistics, and also historical linguists will be thrilled by some of the presented data. The data and the analyses presented here furthermore challenge our view of the morphosyntax of the Scandinavian languages in some cases - as could be expected when a new language enters the linguistic arena.
To go by today's critics of media bias-who have created a virtual cottage industry-American journalism has reached a nadir, yet with all its well-documented faults, journalism is vital to the health ...of our democracy, the glue of information that holds this complex nation together. This book shows the most important roles that journalism plays in the world's oldest democracy. Two seasoned educators and practitioners of journalism have assembled a team of writers who look beyond the critics to show that there is much to be praised about the state of American journalism today. What good is journalism? This book spells out the answer and provides today's readers-and tomorrow's journalists-a fresh perspective on the press to remind us all where we would be without it.
Confronting Discrimination and Inequality in China focuses on the most challenging areas of discrimination and inequality in China, including discrimination faced by HIV/AIDS afflicted individuals, ...rural populations, migrant workers, women, people with disabilities, and ethnic minorities. The Canadian contributors offer rich regional, national, and international perspectives on how constitutions, laws, policies, and practices, both in Canada and in other parts of the world, battle discrimination and the conflicts that rise out of it. The Chinese contributors include some of the most independent-minded scholars and practitioners in China. Their assessments of the challenges facing China in the areas of discrimination and inequality not only attest to their personal courage and intellectual freedom but also add an important perspective on this emerging superpower.
Analyzes changing patterns of immigration, settlement, demography, family structure, and religion, describing trends and their impacts on 2008 politics and beyond. Lays out implications for public ...policy and shows how these trends have shaped the Red and Blue divisions and might break apart those blocs in new and surprising ways.