The intestine secretes a range of hormones with important local and distant actions, including the control of insulin secretion and appetite. A number of enteroendocrine cell types have been ...described, each characterized by a distinct hormonal signature, such as K-cells producing glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), L-cells producing glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and I-cells producing cholecystokinin (CCK). To evaluate similarities between L-, K-, and other enteroendocrine cells, primary murine L- and K-cells, and pancreatic α- and β-cells, were purified and analyzed by flow cytometry and microarray-based transcriptomics. By microarray expression profiling, L cells from the upper small intestinal (SI) more closely resembled upper SI K-cells than colonic L-cells. Upper SI L-cell populations expressed message for hormones classically localized to different enteroendocrine cell types, including GIP, CCK, secretin, and neurotensin. By immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, most colonic L-cells contained GLP-1 and PeptideYY In the upper SI, most L-cells contained CCK, approximately 10% were GIP positive, and about 20% were PeptideYY positive. Upper SI K-cells exhibited approximately 10% overlap with GLP-1 and 6% overlap with somatostatin. Enteroendocrine-specific transcription factors were identified from the microarrays, of which very few differed between the enteroendocrine cell populations. Etv1, Prox1, and Pax4 were significantly enriched in L-cells vs. K cells by quantitative RT-PCR. In summary, our data indicate a strong overlap between upper SI L-, K-, and I-cells and suggest they may rather comprise a single cell type, within which individual cells exhibit a hormonal spectrum that may reflect factors such as location along the intestine and exposure to dietary nutrients.
Several studies have shown the association of solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter) member 8 (SLC30A8) rs13266634 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the association of alternative variants ...and haplotypes of SLC30A8 with T2D have not been studied in different populations. The aim of this study is to assess the association of the alternative SLC30A8 variants, rs7002176 and rs1995222 as well as the most common variant, rs13266634 and haplotypes with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) negative diabetes in Malaysian subjects.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SLC30A8; rs7002176, rs1995222 and rs13266634 were genotyped in 1140 T2D and 973 non-diabetic control subjects. Of these, 33 GADA positive diabetic subjects and 353 metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects were excluded from subsequent analysis.
The recessive genetic model controlled for age, race, gender and BMI shows that the alternative SLC30A8 variant, rs1995222 is associated with GADA negative diabetes (OR = 1.29, P = 0.02) in Malaysian subjects. The most common variant, rs13266634 is also associated with GADA negative diabetes (OR = 1.45, P = 0.001). This association is more pronounced among Malaysian Indians (OR = 1.93, P = 0.001). Moreover, the CG haplotype and CG-CG diplotype have been equally associated with increased diabetic risk (OR = 1.67, P = 8.6 × 10-5).
SLC30A8 SNPs and haplotypes are associated with GADA negative diabetes in Malaysian subjects, and this association is markedly higher among Malaysian Indian subjects.
This volume brings together a team of leading psychologists to provide a state-of-the-art overview of adolescent development. Leading experts provide cutting-edge reviews of theory and research. ...Covers issues currently of most importance in terms of basic and/or applied research and policy formulation. Discusses a wide range of topics from basic processes to problem behavior. The ideal basis for a course on adolescent development or for applied professions seeking the best of contemporary knowledge about adolescents. A valuable reference for faculty wishing to keep up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. Now available in full text online via xreferplus, the award-winning reference library on the web from xrefer. For more information, visit www.xreferplus.com
iPolitics Fox, Richard L; Ramos, Jennifer M
Politicians rely on Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to exercise political power. Citizens around the world also use these tools to vent political frustrations, join political groups and organize ...revolutions. Political activists blog to promote candidates, solicit and coordinate financial contributions and provide opportunities for volunteers. iPolitics describes the ways in which new media innovations change how politicians and citizens engage the political arena. Among other things, contributors to this volume analyze whether the public's political knowledge has increased or decreased in the new media era, the role television still plays in the information universe, the effect bloggers have had on the debate and outcome of healthcare reform, and the manner in which political leaders should navigate the new media environment. While the majority of contributors examine new media and politics in the United States, the volume also provides a unique comparative perspective on this relationship using cases from abroad.
This Handbook offers a comprehensive examination of the Responsibility to Protect norm in world politics, which aims to end mass atrocities against civilians.
The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is ...amongst the most significant norms in global politics. As the authoritative guide to R2P, this edited volume gathers together the most respected and insightful voices to address key issues related to this emerging norm. The contributing authors do this over the course of three parts:
Part I: The Concept of R2P
Part II: Developing and Operationalising R2P
Part III: The view from Over Here
This book will be of much interest to students of R2P, humanitarian intervention, genocide, human rights, international law, peace studies, international organisations, security studies and IR.
Violence and corruption sell big, especially since the birth of action cinema, but even from cinema’s earliest days, the public has been delighted to be stunned by screen representations of ...negativity in all its forms—evil, monstrosity, corruption, ugliness, villainy, and darkness. Bad examines the long line of thieves, rapists, varmints, codgers, dodgers, manipulators, exploiters, conmen, killers, vamps, liars, demons, cold-blooded megalomaniacs, and warmhearted flakes that populate cinematic narrative. From Nosferatu to The Talented Mr. Ripley, the contributors consider a wide range of genres and use a variety of critical approaches to examine evil, villainy, and immorality in twentieth-century film.
This ground-breaking volume considers the ethical aspects of foreign policy change through five interrelated dimensions: conceptual, security, economic, normative and diplomatic. Defining ethics and ...what an ethical foreign policy should be is highly contested. The book includes many very different viewpoints to reflect the strong divergence of opinion on such issues as humanitarian intervention, free trade, the doctrine of preemption, political corruption and human rights. The thematic approach provides this volume with a clear organizational structure, giving readers a balanced overview of a number of important conceptual and practical issues central to the ethical analysis of states' conduct and foreign policy making. An impressive group of international scholars and practitioners, including a New Zealand Foreign Minister, a US National Security Advisor, and an ICJ Justice, makes this volume ideally suited to courses on international relations, security studies, ethics and human rights, philosophy, media studies and international law.