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  • Protein kinase C activation...
    Vargas, Noelle B; Brewer, Brandy Y; Rogers, Terry B; Wilson, Gerald M

    Journal of lipid research, March 2009, 2009-Mar, 2009-03-00, 20090301, 2009-03-01, Letnik: 50, Številka: 3
    Journal Article

    LDL is the most abundant cholesterol transport vehicle in plasma and a major prognostic indicator of atherosclerosis. Hepatic LDL receptors limit circulating LDL levels, since cholesterol internalized by the liver can be excreted. As such, mechanisms regulating LDL receptor expression in liver cells are appealing targets for cholesterol-lowering therapeutic strategies. Activation of HepG2 cells with phorbol esters enhances LDL receptor mRNA levels through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced stabilization of receptor mRNA requires the activity of protein kinase C and is accompanied by activation of the major mitogen activated protein kinase pathways. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that receptor mRNA stabilization is independent of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38MAPK, but requires activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). An essential role for JNK in stabilizing receptor mRNA was further confirmed through small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments and by activating JNK through two protein kinase C-independent mechanisms. Finally, prolonged JNK activation increased steady-state levels of receptor mRNA and protein, and significantly enhanced cellular LDL-binding activity. These data suggest that JNK may play an important role in posttranscriptional control of LDL receptor expression, thus constituting a novel mechanism to enhance plasma LDL clearance by liver cells.